Chandrayaan-2 (India's Orbiter-Lander-Rover Mission)

Chandrayaan-2 is India's second lunar exploration mission Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Bengaluru. The main scientific objective is to map the location and abundance of lunar water.


Chandrayaan-2 was developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bengaluru, the mission is planned to be launched to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III). It includes a lunar orbiter, lander and ,rover all developed indigenously. The mission's lander is called Vikram named after Vikram Sarabhai (1919-1971), who is widely regarded as the father of the Indian space programme. The main objective is to deploy the rover, and perform scientific activities for approximately 15 days. The approximate combined mass of the lander and rover is 1,471 kg. Some of the associated technologies include a high resolution camera, navigation camera, hazard avoidance camera, an 800 N throttle able liquid main engine, attitude thrusters, altimeter, velocity meter, and the software needed to run these components.

The Chandrayaan-2 orbiter will circle the moon and provide information about its surface and made detail study about lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, lunar exosphere and signatures of hydroxyl and water-ice. The orbiter will map the lunar surface and help to prepare 3D maps of it. The wheeled rover will move on the lunar surface and will perform on-site chemical analysis. Chandrayaan-2 stack would be initially put in an Earth parking orbit of 170 km prigee and 40,400 km apogee by the launch vehicle. It will then perform orbit-raising operations followed by translunar injection using its own power.

NASA and the European Space Agency were interested in participating, but ISRO proceeded with the mission on its own.

These are the list of instruments on the orbiter :

1. The Terrain Mapping Camera 2 (TMC-2), which will map the lunar surface in three dimensions using two on-board cameras. 2. Collimated Large Array Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS), which will map the abundance of minerals on the surface. 3. Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM), which looks at emissions of solar X-rays. 4. Chandra's Atmospheric Composition Explorer (ChACE-2), which is a neutral mass spectrometer. 5. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which will map the surface in radio waves. Some of its design is based on Chandrayaan-1's MiniSAR.Imaging. 6. Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS), which will measure the abundance of water/hydroxl on the moon surface. 7. Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC) to examine the surface, particularly the landing site of the lander and rover.

The lander's instruments includes :

1. Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA), to look for moonquakes. 2. Chandra's Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE), to examine the surface's thermal properties. 3. Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA-Langmuir Probe), to look at plasma density on the surface.

The rover will carry two science instruments and it is used to look at the composition of the surface

1. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) 2. Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS).

A successful landing would make India the 4th country to achieve a soft landing on the moon, after the space agencies of the USSR, USA and China.

The mission has an allocated cost of ₹978 crore (approximately US$141 million) which includes ₹603 crore for space segment and ₹375 crore as launch costs on GSLV MK III.